Tachypnea. Rapid, shallow breathing, caused by pleuritic chest pain or diseases that immobilize the lung. Hyperpnea. Rapid, deep breathing; hyperventilation. Caused by meningitis or other cerebral dysfunction. Treat with CPAP. Kyphosis. Excessive anterior curvature of spine, as in hunchback. Cause. normal or from aging, osteoporosis. Scoliosis. Lateral curvature of spine.
lung consolidation differential diagnosisIntroduction Chest inspection, palpation, and auscultation are key components of the physical examination of patients with respiratory disease. Palpation ascertains the signs suggested by inspecting and assessing the state of the pleura and lung parenchyma by studying the vocal fremitus. Vocal tactile fremitus is palpation of the chest wall to detect changes in the intensity of vibrations created with certain spoken words in a constant tone and voice indicating underlying lung pathology. Transmission of spoken tones depends on the state of the underlying lung parenchyma in the pleural space.
Breath sounds Normal breath sounds Vesicular sounds The intensity and quality of breath sounds depends on the site of Auscultation. Thus in health, over most of the chest, the breath sounds are low-pitched and have a relatively quiet expiratory phase. The inspiratory phase lasts longer than the expiratory phase with a ration I.E of 2.1. In health, such sounds are heard only over the large air passages e. In the presence of consolidation or cavitation there is less filtration and attenuation of the sounds produced in the large airways, so that the sounds heard over the chest wall are similar to those heard over large air passages such as the trachea.
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